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In Figure 1 C, higher specific hydraulic conductivity is correlated with increases in nutrient availability Amponsah et al. Faster growth rate not only implies faster diameter growth but also a larger gas exchange surface area e.
Aber et al. Higher carbon fixation capacity per individual has a cost in terms of evaporative water loss that is facilitated by higher hydraulic conductivity, which helps supply water to the transpiring leaves. However, these hydraulic adjustments may not compensate for the large increase in leaf surface area Ewers et al. In more technical terms, xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity a measure of intrinsic properties of the stem xylem tissue substantially increases; however, leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity a measure of the efficiency of stem water supply per unit leaf surface area is not sufficiently enhanced to compensate for increases in leaf area.
Although stomatal control increases stomatal conductance decreases with increasing nutrient availability e. Theoretical relationships between growth rate, water relations and hydraulic traits as a function of variation in nutrient availability produced by N and P fertilizations. The shape of the trait response to decreasing nutrient limitation removal is described in each case as a linear relationship to indicate the trend of the response, either an increase or decrease in the magnitude of the variable with increasing nutrients.
The arrow in each axis shows the increases in the level of resources or the direction of the variable change. The Y -axis could have an arithmetic or exponential scale, depending on the shape of the relationship. Even though it may appear counterintuitive, because wood density decreases with increasing nutrient availability as a consequence of faster growth rate Figure 1 B , resistance to cavitation is enhanced Figure 1 F, e. Harvey and van den Driessche , Ewers et al.
Other xylem anatomical characteristics e. Increases in resistance to cavitation with the removal of nutrient limitation do not imply that fertilized plants are at lower risk of embolism formation.
Fertilized plants usually have more negative water potentials; consequently, they may operate closer to the point of catastrophic dysfunction; that is, these plants may have a smaller hydraulic safety margin Tyree and Sperry The functional link between growth rate, wood density and hydraulic architecture has been examined further from a theoretical point of view and using modeling approaches e.
Other properties of tree hydraulic architecture should be included in future integrative studies linking nutrient availability with water relations and growth, such as the role of the internal stem water storage and the impact of water uptake and biomass allocation to roots in buffering the effect of nutrient limitation removal on water deficits.
Bioscience 39 : — Google Scholar. Adv Ecol Res 30 : 1 — Tree Physiol 24 : — Plant Cell Environ 29 : — Funct Ecol 3 : 73 — Clearwater MJ Meinzer FC Relationships between hydraulic architecture and leaf photosynthetic capacity in nitrogen-fertilized Eucalyptus grandis trees.
Tree Physiol 21 : — Plant Physiol : — New Phytol : — Oxford University Press , Oxford , pp — Google Preview. Ecol Appl 9 : — Plant Cell Environ 23 : — Tree Physiol.
Glob Change Biol 9 : — Gusewell S N:P ratio in terrestrial plants: variation and functional significance. Oecologia : — Gymnosperm tracheids with torus-margo pit membranes. Tree Physiol 30 : — Tree Physiol 17 : — Jansen S Choat B Plestercs A Morphological variation of intervessel pit membrane and implication to xylem function in angiosperms.
Funct Ecol 18 : 25 — Roy J Garnier E A whole plant perspective on carbon—nitrogen interactions. For Ecol Manage : — Tyree MT Sperry JS Do woody plants operate near the point of catastrophic xylem dysfunction caused by dynamic water stress? Answers from a model. Plant Physiol 88 : — Springer , Berlin.
Vitousek PM Farrington H Nutrient limitation and soil development: experimental test of a biogeochemical theory. Biogeochemistry 37 : 63 — Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Conflict of interest.
Journal Article. Why do trees adjust water relations and hydraulic architecture in response to nutrient availability? Guillermo Goldstein , Guillermo Goldstein 5.
Oxford Academic. Sandra J. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Figure 1. Open in new tab Download slide. Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS. The mineral nutrition of wild plants revisited: a re-evaluation of processes and patterns.
Growth response and sapwood hydraulic properties of young lodgepole pine following repeated fertilizations. Nutrient availability constrains the hydraulic architecture and water relations of savanna trees.
Relationships between hydraulic architecture and leaf photosynthetic capacity in nitrogen-fertilized Eucalyptus grandis trees. Variation in nitrogen-use efficiency among and within subarctic graminoids and herbs. Neighbours who know each other. Kids who play together. Friends who stop for a chat at the lake. Garden is conveniently close to the iconic energy of Commercial Drive , but just far enough away that this Grandview-Woodland neighbourhood feels like home.
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