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These women have to be recognized and praised for the plurality of their identities, having fluid and hybrid practices, and responding to global intellectual currents. With this celebration, we are also faced with the stark reality of many qualified women leaving the field altogether.
But I wonder what do we really know about the successful and not-so-successful women architects—their work practices, choice of jobs, struggles and achievements in the profession, the intersectionality of their identities, and the role played by their class and community?
Are they satisfied with their careers? What support network or role models and mentors were there behind their success? Was there any relation between their personal lives and success in the profession? What technological and business trials did they face? And most importantly, do they design differently as women? Nevertheless, what we know is that most of the average practitioners face the relentless challenge of balancing their job with the major share of domestic work and parenting duties.
It was vehemently pointed out to me that these were simply social issues. That used to shut me up, but I know much better now. I strongly believe that flexibility in workplaces should be a key part of contemporary practices, along with childcare systems, provided either privately or by the State. Women also need to be encouraged towards. To understand the area of practice a bit more, here is an excellent quote by Matthewson et al. The first is the architecture schools where the process of becoming an architect begins.
Second is the building site where the production of architecture is most clearly seen. Third, the architectural media in all its diverse forms, is where representation and discussion of architects and buildings set the terms of definition, judgment, and circulation of buildings and profile.
The fourth and final site of architectural production is the architectural office or workplace. Of all the four, the workplace is by far the least visible, and it has not been well-studied. But since it houses, structures, and organizes architectural labor and processes of decision-making, communication, and negotiation, the architectural workplace is a crucial site of production and representation.
Inequality first needs to be realized before thinking patterns can change, and much later, can be implemented on the ground. Young women-graduates. From empirical research, we know that women bring certain distinct advantages and high emotional investment to the profession.
They are, by and large, interested in the broad vision of architecture and not just focused on bold statements or iconic expressions. They often have a collaborative, bottom-up, and inclusive approach. Most of them seem to concentrate more on personal fulfillment rather than fame and glory while sharing credits with the team. From interpersonal communication with clients, colleagues, and collaborators to social and environmental causes, the design solutions reflect their concerns. They tend to do pro bono, community-oriented work, especially for the marginalized people who have been left out of design considerations.
They are often proactive in taking leading roles and responsibilities in larger social contexts, where they believe their ideas can make a difference. What a waste of energy. I believe that there is a need to provide more access to women architects to all phases of work, especially site visits and management, and more involvement in the business decisions of the firm.
Women should be encouraged to lead a project, to develop negotiation skills, to participate in client interactions, and to take part in decisionmaking. Finally, considering the work-life challenge, employers should provide more flexible options, including job sharing, regular hours, part-time options, and working from home. Research Research is central to knowledge production and theory generation. Academia is where pure and applied research gets undertaken, which, by and large, is not the case in India in architecture, urban design, and planning.
As the discipline is constantly celebrating design and designers, the research component is relatively marginalized. There is a lack of longstanding and respected tradition of valuing scholarship and encouraging. On the other hand, practitioners have traditionally relied largely on intuition, design principles, and precedents in their design processes.
Most of them continue to do so because research and theory are not viewed as productive tools in actual practice. In addition, financial support for primary research is extremely difficult to obtain. Therefore, research is the most challenging lacuna for gender and the built environment disciplines. In fact, the participation of feminist scholars in the production of new knowledge is the need of the hour for us.
Through funding and promotion, if college faculty were trained and encouraged towards undertaking serious research projects, it would bring valuable and much-required contribution to the field. There are two broad areas of research that need to be addressed: Women and men as designers of space and as users of space.
While working on my book on women architects, I was shocked to find the enormous loss of material from the first generation of women architects. As these women had passed away, decades of their career records were not to be found.
Information about their life letters and photographs and work drawings, sketches, and photographs was extremely difficult to come by as it was not preserved.
Unfortunately, neither the women themselves in their time nor their heirs viewed their work as historically significant.
This is a vast arena that has barely been touched. There are many other crucial aspects of women in practice that have great potential for research inquiry.
The second broad topic of space in itself is not inherently powerful. It is the politics of spatial usage that determines its power.
With use, space becomes gendered because largely imperceptible, spatial arrangements between men and women reproduce prevailing status differences Figure 5. This clearly establishes a close relationship with the design process in architectural production that has been more or less ignored by our profession. Therefore, research is needed at different spatial scales—macro to micro. For example, studies in gender and domestic architecture suffer from neglect and under-representation in house and housing categories.
Men, in general, are subjected to a lot of violence in public spaces but women, not only experience verbal and physical harassment, stalking, molestation, violence including sexual assault and rape but are also extremely fearful of sexual violence due to their everyday socialization process of growing up in a patriarchal society, which makes them anxious and insecure in public areas.
Thus, often, the. There are no gender guidelines included in our master plans. However, there exist a few exceptions.
The collection of credible statistical data about women in architecture is the first and foremost requirement. They should celebrate the achievements of women through awards, exhibitions, books, lectures, etc.
How many women are a part of the boards? Figure 6. They must encourage women to chair and be members of boards and committees. If women do not have enough representation, there is less chance of their needs being comprehended and valued.
I am happy to say that the COA has recently formed a sub-committee for women in architecture as a first step. So much more needs to be done. For example, fresh graduates require resources, information, and support, as well as mentoring programs.
They can also collaborate with universities and industries to engage and partner in gender equity programs. C AIA n. The AIA WLS was organized as a grassroots-level effort to bring together women principals of architecture firms, women in leadership positions, and women architects moving into leadership roles across the country.
Education is the key to strengthening the professional confidence, self-image, and experience of a woman architect.
That is why academic leadership is of great significance to the development of role models for women students. Figure 6: Percentage of women in governing bodies. For example, I was shocked to find on a visit to a women-only college of architecture that despite the majority of teachers being women, the entire management team, as well as the head of the department, were—of course—men.
I assume that this is a typical case, and the male management finds women teachers less of a challenge and more pliable. On the other hand, even in practice, research shows that having more women in an organization creates more team-confidence, higher psychological safety, lower turnover rates, and better recruitment—for the whole staff Hosey n. Leadership has to be simultaneously neutral and equitable.
While I oppose traditional constructs of leadership based on patriarchal lines , I believe in a much broader idea of leadership, not necessarily stemming from a position of power but from anyone for example, a peer or a teacher who expands the agency of women through even informal leadership qualities. However, in the last ten years, an increasing number of women have taken up leadership positions in academia in architecture and design in India according to an estimate, at least colleges of architecture have women in significant positions , and we are posed at a great moment in time to address gender parity issues.
Feminist theory enables feminist leaders from any gender to identify injustices and oppressions, and inspires them to facilitate the development of more inclusive, holistic communities. Like many others, it is the personal experience of marginalization, injustice, and self-doubt that has pushed me in the positive direction of working on gender and the built environment issues. I do believe that feminist scholars are uniquely positioned to advance public knowledge and help maintain a vibrant cultural awareness of issues affecting women and other genders.
There seems to be a lack of understanding that in a socio-cultural field like architecture that greatly impacts human lives, there is a need to emphasize sociological theories in its training, including feminist theories as an integral part of the learning process. It is only a familiarity with feminist theories that allow a person to identify the historic wrongs within the patriarchal setups, without which it is impossible to be able to dismantle them. To sum up, academic leadership is about responding to some of the many points I have raised so far, as well as about making structural changes.
The following are some of the key aspects for good leadership: make a difference to others, develop an affirmative approach, lead mentoring programs, create a supportive network, have empathy for fellow men and women, work towards a fair and inclusive community, strive for high professionalism, and empower the team. In short, it is critical that the architectural profession as a whole understands the benefits of having women employed in all tiers of professional practice or in academics, including leadership roles.
We also. We should engage, share, and learn from the best practices of gender empowerment. I deeply share these feelings.
New Delhi: Routledge, I sincerely thank Monolita Chatterjee, Soumini Raja, and Shhrruti Jain for their insightful comments that greatly improved this paper i. Masculine knowledge refers to particular systems that legitimize and privilege knowledge predominantly created by men, and is constructed through processes that inscribe masculine practices, rituals and performances as normative. Accessed on August 28, References AIA. Accessed June 6, Ashworth, Susie, and Justine Clark.
In conversation with … Jos Boys. Bhasin, Kamala, and Nighat Said Khan. Feminism and Its Relevance in South Asia. New Delhi: Women Unlimited. Accessed March 14, Desai, Madhavi.
In print. Edited by Madhavi Desai. New Delhi: South Asia Press. New Delhi: Routledge. Hosey, Lance. Lang, Jon T. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Lico, Gerard Rey A. Diliman: self-published. Moi, Torin. Edited by Belsey, Catherine, and Jane Moore.
Nesbitt, Kate. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. The Wire. Accessed on August 5, New Delhi: Penguin Books. Willis, Julie. Accessed March 19, May we achieve higher goals by following our ancestors who stayed close to each other.
May our aspirations be harmonious, may our minds be in unison. May we strive to reduce disparity and be bound in unity. The idea and the meter in which it is chanted are hauntingly beautiful. Yet this hymn is an oxymoron.
A small segment where all women, cis and trans, as well as men of the lower castes and tribes are excluded. The language and its accessibility to facilitate an understanding of this hymn were limited to a section of upper-caste men. Such cultural practices endorsed a signifying system of morality, a representation code, and sites for the production of ethereal positions that ratified discriminations and differences. This prayer of well-being and similar texts that followed excluded a majority, normalised social divisions, and imbued these disparities with a religious sanction.
We still bear the burden of this divide. The intent of this paper is to shift focus from the dominant-centric position to the marginalised periphery. It is from this periphery that the centre needs to be critiqued, reimagined, and redesigned.. A feminist does not commodify culture into a monologue but moulds it into a porous entity constantly in flux, where artists explore and articulate anguish, solutions, and joy.
Both moved from their place of birth to settle and work in another land and culture. During the s, the new international exhibitions along with the biennales provided a forum to showcase international artists, many who worked away from their countries.
An Autobiographical work, that speaks about displacement, disorientation, loss and war. Her work also includes religious texts as well as the etymology of terms we commonly use for labeling spaces. This film also explores methods in which written texts similar to the Sanskrit hymn from the Rig Veda mentioned earlier become accessible or inaccessible to an audience with different language and cultural skills Chadwick Thus, the body becomes the canvas for the inscription of a social order and meaning.
Mona Hatoum also questions the central position that stereotypes all women under Islam, as a subordinate silent entity. The inclusion of functional objects into installations further blurs. Thus, creating avenues for multiple layers of narratives by which women were shaping both theory and practices of contemporary art. The Grater Divide is one of her famous installations that transformed a commonly used kitchen gadget into a multiple-layered artefact. A simple kitchen grater is a sheet of metal with sharp perforations, which if not negotiated with care, inflicts pain.
Hatoum enlarges the grater into a giant dividing screen, reminiscent of the ornately carved wooden screens traditionally used between the public living space and the relatively private dining areas. It serves to restrict visibility and control access between the two realms inside a domestic space. The enlarged perforations are now more of an armed weapon than an ornament.
In the larger context, this represents the menacing concrete walls built by the Israeli forces in Palestinian territory. These walls, by their overpowering presence, not only divide the land and resources, but also push an indigenous population.
Relations between the process of creating an artefact and the politics of the gaze respond directly to the enclosed space. Her installations transcend and question a the validity of the space of representation, the site; b the represented space of her installation, the object; and c a critique of social space, multiple meanings.
Use of geometric grids, household objects, systems of surveillance as tools for exploring spatial negotiations, conflicting contradictions, and text become her primary theme. Her work stands out; instead of making a loud, grand, or absolute statement, she poses a question. Hatoum interrogates the existing relationships of land, space, and boundaries with culturally accepted gendered value systems, including the normalisation of boundaries between the self and the world as porous and vulnerable protuberances.
As cities increasingly turn into spatial receptacles of strangers, consumption, and spectacle, a feminist analysis of modernism is essential to question gender constructs and binaries.
Lina Bo Bardi, despite being one of the most expressive architects of the twentieth century, was largely unknown to the world. A multi-faceted architect, she designed furniture, residential and industrial buildings, and was also a sharp critic, writer, and editor.
Her contribution to the field of architecture, like many other modernist women architects, has seen decades of neglect and exclusion. Here, the intent is to highlight her lesser-known publication on architectural pedagogy.
She proposed a methodology for teaching architecture theory which would imbibe students with an incentive to think, with the motivation towards research, and to infuse a conviction that modern architecture—like the other human activities—is a reflective response of a time period. She also emphasised the need to stimulate a professional conscience—a philosophical point of view towards the relationship.
Lina Bo Bardi refuses to treat any of the historical moments as absolutes, rightly claiming that an absolute valid formal abstract theory of architecture does not exist. She goes on to propose the following strategies: a. Introduction of a polemical contradiction or an alternate perspective that is against the rampant culturalism of the time.
Everything in architecture is subject to thought; to thinking outside oneself Gaudet The emphasis is on critically evaluating the theories proposed since Vitruvius, and she debates its validity through different time periods. Study and observation of nature and natural ecosystems as the primary source of knowledge in architecture. She dismisses the need for imitation of natural forms. The stress here is on the study of existing ecological systems before commencing any architectural design.
She explores the myriad definitions given of architecture and later stresses on the need to understand architecture as an expression of urbanism and not as a separate isolated entity. Palladio and Borromini focused more on the exterior plasticity of form than the organization of the floor plan.
She advocates that buildings need not shout out for attention but should complement the urban landscape. To merge, such that the buildings cease to remain inert inserts in the built landscape but instead become contextual responses to the place and time period. The role of drawing in architecture pedagogy.
All students need to learn to draw not pictorial descriptions but with lines that are clean, coarse, and analytical. Drawings should reveal critical design clarity. Her theoretical writings seem to have originated from her architectural practice and also vice versa.
As seen in the sketch Figure 4 , the landscape is an integral part of the house with undefined free-flowing spaces.
In , her work on architectural pedagogy was the first published literature on the theory of architecture by a practising woman architect. She had written extensively on the role of heritage and the social responsibilities of architects, and published analytical critiques on the contemporary architecture of the time. House of the Future was a wooden rectangular box with a single entrance, whose plastic interiors with sinuous curves highlighted a trend towards bio-morphism Colomina , — A central inward-looking courtyard was the only connection to the sky—a closed box, devoid of any meaningful relationship with the neighbourhood or historical context.
It was an independent insert, alien, and with no relation to its context: human or. Her writings need to be seen not only as a reference text but also as a critical appraisal of architectural design. Conclusion This study of selected work by artist Mona Hatoum and architect Lina Bo Bardi reveals the subdued narratives, which they express through their expertise in the field.
Hatoum draws and questions spatial divisions and social categories with those divisions conflict. She proposes a rethink of all social and culturally sanctioned constructs that divide, segregate, and discriminate.
Her articulated installations compel us to question all prevailing spatial order. In a similar trajectory, Lina Bo Bardi critiques the built environment and proposes a design approach which would lead us. Through her methodological approach, Lina Bo Bardi offers a fresh definition of architecture and the role of the architect as an active part of the society and not in a hierarchical relationship. Both of them offer different narratives, yet their strategies resemble.
The need for a constant critical engagement with the dominant popular present. The need to identify the problem so that the solutions are people-centric and benefit one and all. The refusal to believe in constants and absolutes, and all such belief systems that lead to systemic violence and an erosion of social justice. All studies of texts, artworks, and its producers are seen through the lens of history, sociocultural locations, socially-determined semiotic space and time.
Yet, something is said to have meaning for all of us beyond its point of production and precisely because of its situated articulation as a singular subject position. This search for alternatives, for a new egalitarian spatial order, has been a long-drawn quest, well-articulated during the Bhakti movement in India.
Sant Ravidas c. Marginal spaces are tolerated only as long as they do not replace and threaten the dominant paradigm. It is from this excluded space, defiantly, that Sant Ravidas and innumerable women saints from all other regions sang songs for divine deliverance from exploitation, and dreamt of lives without conflict. Begumpura, the city without sorrow, is a casteless, classless society; one without a mention of temples Omvedt A land, with no hierarchy, and where all are equal.
It offers the right to walk anywhere in the settlement, city, or village. Oh, says Ravidas, a tanner now set free, those who walk beside me are my friends. This sublime song in the vernacular dialect offers a spatial and social alternative—a new social structure, which would create an egalitarian space. His longing for a utopian settlement based on equality for all differs from the Vedic hymn cited earlier. His words highlight the prevalent binaries that lie etched deep in our society.
This conception is reminiscent of the journeys that Lina Bo Bardi and Mona Hatoum were compelled to undertake, primarily to pursue their work without censorship. They all stress on the difference of what was actually lived, how it was experienced, and what was represented. They are not fantasies but are grounded in real contexts and highlight the ugly, dangerous, and disruptive aspects of reality.
References Bhattacharji, Sukumari. Chadwick, Witney. Women, Art and Society. Colomina, Beatriz. Domesticity at War. Massachusetts: MIT Press. Hawley, John Stratton, and Mark Juergensmeyer. Songs of the Saints of India. New York. Omvedt, Gail. New Delhi: Navayana Publication. Pollock, Grieslda. Vision and Difference. New York: Routledge. Said, Edward. Scott, Geoffrey. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Veikos, Catherine.
Who is Mona Hatoum? Tate Shots May 9, Zizek, Slavoj. Accessed February 27, The earliest forms of architectural pedagogy in South Asia were oriented toward professional training and licensing. The images to the right [Figures 1 and 2] are drawn from The Life and Work of an Asian Woman Architect, the pictorial memoir written by Minnette de Silva, a Ceylonese architect whose career began in the classrooms of the Sir J.
College of Architecture. She must have appeared as a minor character to herself in a historical setting that counted major protagonists among her teachers Claude Batley, G.
What histories, then, does her archive document, and how do they make a feminist argument? Siddiqi ; ; The most direct record, The Life and Work of an Asian Woman Architect, in many ways conventionally illustrates an architectural design and building practice. Courtesy of Helga de Silva Blow Perera. It was a practice dispersed throughout imperial systems of art education, historically linked with the rise of professional architectural education throughout the world, and constitutive to architectural study in South Asian institutions, as various scholars have examined Glover ; Scriver ; Dutta ; Guha-Thakurta ; Hosagrahar College of Architecture—an otherwise ephemeral epistemic intervention by this regionally and globally significant architecture school.
On the one hand, the practice was instituted as a draughting pedagogy, and, on the other, to document the heritage landscape. The latter aim, which de Silva assumed in her teaching, is demonstrated in the example of Lankatillakke. She documented Fatehpur Sikri on this journey, rendering drawings in the Beaux-Arts style, with building elevations projected above plans, and a watercolor wash over linework in the drafted details, which she noted that she produced for the Archaeological Survey of India [Figure 3].
She later led a college excursion through Sri Lanka with the aim of documenting the built heritage. College of Architecture, many of which are well recorded; for example, this sort of field pedagogy was employed continuously in the documentation of villages in dedicated trips by students of CEPT, an architecture school founded by Balkrishna V. Doshi, a s graduate of the Sir J. This pedagogical practice was central to the freight of her book, more so than the built work.
It radically expanded the stakes for this pictorial text, to shift away from the architectural portfolio and instead become a different, more generative document.
Here, I would like to remain speculative rather than conclusive concerning what it means to construct an archive, an archive of pedagogy,. Pedagogy serves as a singular, interpretive, highly subjective form of reflection.
The pedagogy an architect disseminates renders some version of the pedagogy she received as a learner. It inhabited ways of knowing that did not appear otherwise through the architectural trace. A student even a minor character in the midst of major protagonists becomes agentive through the publication of her archive.
Karunaratne at St. References de Silva, Minnette. Colombo: Smart Media Productions. Dossal, Mariam. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Dutta, Arindam. Glover, William. London: Ashgate. Guha-Thakurta, Tapati. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hosagrahar, Jyoti. Moving Ahead: History and Modernization. Scriver, Peter. Edited by Peter Scriver and Vikramaditya Prakash.
Abingdon: Routledge. Siddiqi, Anooradha Iyer. It is shaped by human intention and intervention, a living archaeology through which weight can extract the priorities and beliefs of the decision-makers in our society.
Both the process through which we build and the forms themselves embody cultural values and imply standards of behaviour which affect us all. The inhabitation, appropriation, and use of space are inherently political acts. In order to understand the complex structure of this political act, we attempt to unravel the idea of spatial appropriation. We propose that the need for spatial appropriation stems from a lack of equity.
We question the role it plays in forming identities and transforming behaviour. Our larger goal is to understand the resultant transformation in the usage of architectural space, both the physical and the perceived, through the lives and voices of gender minorities. This paper, however, centres on the experiences of cis women leaders. Space is also a social product, a venue where social relations are played out, and one that. Built environments may not determine or generate behaviour, but they may facilitate or inhibit certain behaviours within us, in a way, acting as catalysts and prophesying how we occupy, appropriate, and use space Rapoport We live in a world that, sometimes covertly and at other times brazenly, reinforces its gendered structure, nature, and representation.
Connotations of gender and undercurrents of gender-based associations are recurrent in the design of our cities and buildings. A dichotomy is established between city and nature where the gridded city and its objects are equated with the machine that dominates and negates nature and concurrently, the woman. Right from birth, we are conditioned to want what we are allowed or entitled to and to navigate the disparity by occupying our predetermined moulds of identity.
It can be observed that subaltern lives, subjected to such disparities in socio-cultural access to space, have sometimes left gendered cavities and at other times negotiated such spatial exclusivities. This paper is our attempt to identify these invisible occupants and to render their acts of spatial appropriation and behavioural adjustments in the form of gender stories.
Gender stories use the central idea of narration from the technique of. These significant stories or events can ultimately contribute to shaping our identities. Whilst the intent of the narration of such stories is not to transform the subjects or audience, the eventual goal is to share gender stories with others, inform them, and allow connections to occur over shared experiences.
Stories help us in organising our thoughts, and in finding purpose and meaning—a meaning that depends on the kind of personality we have developed as well as the culture we are part of. The choice of subjects for our study is also inclusive, ranging from women architects practising in academia as well as the industry—from seasoned professionals to young entrepreneurs.
Men and women are both socialised into the space they occupy and the role they perform through the process of gender socialisation. Another socially inclined and responsive phenomenon cited by psychologists is emotion Christophe and Rime , and together, these help us to adapt and survive in a social environment Abe and Izard , In order to understand the role of cognition and socialisation in gender development and identity, it is imperative to rely on Gender Schema Theory and Social Cognitive Theory of Gender Development and Differentiation.
Gender Schema theory interprets that every individual, during the process of learning gender attributes, forms a gender schema comprising every aspect of gender pertaining to their culture.
Eventually, this schema influences their concept of self, and, depending on how much they are adhering to the dictums of the schema, even their feelings of adequacy Bem , — On the other hand, Cognitive Theory of Gender. Development and Differentiation places its emphasis on social factors and the environment in moulding gender differentiation, especially through modelling Bussey and Bandura , — This theory propounds the influence of non-cognitive factors like motivation, affective and environmental factors, and models in the learning of gendered information.
The problem arises, however, when women are reinforced to be submissive and conditioned to take up premeditated and subordinate social roles, be it at home or work Millett , Hovering above this is an environment where children are constantly observing women engage in docile and passive roles, leading to yet another posse of misguided subjects. The reality is that men and women are both socialised to have different motives and goals in life, depending on their cultural background and socialisation histories.
The repertoire of information fed by society encourages us to choose between caretaker vs economic provider, intimacy vs control, and interdependence vs dependence. The extent and magnitude to which this nurtures their gender schema and core beliefs, evidently the most enduring fundamental understanding of self, is undeniable. In fact, these nuances are what we often philosophise as the truths of life.
In order to paint a picture of spatial and behavioural appropriation of space in the premise of gender, we met and conversed with women occupying different roles of leadership in academic and professional practice. Few of them found meaning on a serendipitous, and perhaps, an incidental path in their journey and others single-mindedly pursued an idealised space and found solace in navigating its twists and turns.
It was like any other institution campus one would expect—a motley of insipid buildings painted in muted beige tones, grand yet unoccupied entryways languishing in the dull, a sultry afternoon heatwave, and gravel pathways branching off to even more departments and common areas. An unassuming woman with a reassuring smile answered and looked up at us from her desk. An academic with thirty. She listened ardently, nodded her head with every intonation, and when we concluded, smiled at us and said they were good questions.
For a woman brought up in a quintessential small-town family background with all of the accompanying values and vices, she was, in her own right, a pioneer as she so accurately described. A life of reaffirmations that one must be demure and disciplined, that academic excellence eclipses everything, and that failure is not a comprehensible concept led her to make an accidental choice to pursue architecture, and later, teaching.
This fortuitous choice led her on a journey all the way from Tellichery to Trivandrum, to one of the only schools of architecture there was in Kerala in Years of guilt, strife, loneliness, doubt, and fear of failure followed for a girl who was so abruptly dislodged from the protective embrace of the home into a whole new world with an almost alien culture.
The unfamiliarity of space, both physical and emotional, was perhaps the bane of her existence for the first few years. Ironically, what eventually reinforced her confidence and rebuilt her identity was her time as a fresh-faced employee in the offices of some of the established male architects of Calicut city in the late s. We asked her if there were other women in the office.
Apart from a draughtsman and a receptionist, she was the lone female employee in the architecture department; another milestone, another breakthrough. Was it the boldness of this adventure, something not expected from Malabari women in her opinion, or the prescience that she was the first of many that allowed her to adapt to this world of architecture, both in the office and in the university?
Was it the same credence that allows her, years later, to find a sense of quietude and courage to hold a highly competitive and political position of power in academia that comes with its own volley of challenges? Seated comfortably in her office of the same muted beige tones, she seemed content in her role as she poignantly told us of a ten-yearlong ordeal she endured—of complaints and perceived discrimination, of backstabbing and mental trauma, of doubts, and eventually, of acceptance.
Sandhya Imagine having had an entire childhood of positive reaffirmations, one that you thought groomed yourself to be independent, one where the importance of building a career was ingrained right from the beginning, one where gender was inconsequential. Would you still grow up to fit into a preordained mould? Would you realise one day that you spent years of your adult life making yourself smaller so others could occupy the room; that you refrained from making claims on your rightful place, and that though you walked the path with countless others, to them, you were invisible?
When we eventually met Sandhya at her simple yet elegant office space in the affluent neighbourhood of Jawahar Nagar in Calicut, little did we know that we were even pursuing these questions.
As we waited in the meeting room for Sandhya to arrive, we both fidgeted with our notepads and fountain pens, visibly intimidated and palpably excited to meet her finally.
She walked in just as we expected; with a confident stride, her demeanour was charming and her conversation urbane. Sandhya started her architecture career when she joined the office run by her husband in the s. Architecture may not have been her first choice but that she would have a career, was more or less promulgated right from her home. And she eventually did.
She recalls a particular incident when on her way back from a site, she received a call from her husband asking her to collect catalogues of hardware for one of his projects; a job she was overqualified to do, a job that should have been handed over to his junior associate; but perhaps a job she was expected to help with. She left the office, and, contrary to what one would expect, especially if it were a man, she could not muster the confidence to start her own practice immediately.
Instead, in the early s, she dispensed her services as a freelancer working with established architects in the field. Ironic that after having built her career in a firm alongside her husband, this is the time she felt she stood out and was finally noticed. She had to take on roles,. She often had to resort to taking a male colleague with her to site to accommodate the reluctance of the workforce to approach her; having to work with a crew that sought reassurance and reliability in a man and had difficulty taking instructions from a woman.
Years later, she finds herself somewhere between these two roles, running her own practice, and inculcating her gender-positive values amongst her employees and peers, poised and confident.
Sridevi Changali and Ar. This was the quality that became increasingly evident as we interviewed architects Rosie Paul and Sridevi Changali over Skype one afternoon—two founder-architects from Bangalore who spoke to us eloquently and with enthusiasm. Two women who persistently motivate each other, share common interests, resolutely built the foundations of this collective passion, and pursued an idealistic aspiration with a penchant. The resilience and confidence to pave their way through challenges became the bedrock for these two young and vibrant women to set up their practice.
Sridevi and Rosie ended up choosing specialities that are relatively unconventional as well as exigent. Specialising in heritage conservation and sustainable alternate practices of construction, they have carved out a niche for themselves and established their own standards of excellence. Their acts of appropriation and resistance to the discreet yet indelible disparities of practice sprouted from, and always connected back to, being on the site.
Their workshops are very physical, they do a lot of heavy lifting, literally and in principle, and they encourage equality right from participation to performance of labour. Sridevi recounts with a hint of frustration how it always hurts her ego when she is advised not to pull her weight or perform hard labour on site.
However, all of this, including the fact that their office. Not as a statement but simply because it was the way. The re-appropriations of immutable boundaries on site started quite early in their academic and professional lives. With the sustained equilibrium that Rosie and Sridevi attained through their lives, they not only look at this as a positive area of intervention, but also as a way to encourage and celebrate differences. They have embarked on the long and rather arduous task of training women in alternate building construction techniques to tip the scales a little.
As we concluded our conversation, we sat back feeling as though we had come full circle, however, a little less daunted and a little more hopeful. It will also be nice to add photos of the women and perhaps some works.
We adopted this blameless approach to have a conversation on gender stories that bestow a position of power and dominance for men and submission for women Nylund and Debora , — The gender schema developed in both men and women is so strong that they tend to believe them as their own personal stories. All this in an attempt to process the experience, comprehend the problem better, and to have agency over it.
We hope to continue this pursuit and to bring more such shared experiences and stories to a broader platform. And we hope that someday, we can write our own stories.
Acknowledgements We would like to take this opportunity to thank the convenors of this symposium, Professor Madhavi Desai, Dr Anuradha Chatterjee, and Dr Kush Patel, for giving us a platform to share these stories, and to the editors of the proceedings, Dr Kush Patel and Dr Soumini Raja, for making them accessible to a wider public. References Abe, J. A, and Carroll E. Cognition and Emotion 13, no. Agrest, Diana. The Sex of Architecture.
New York: Harry N. Bem, L. Bussey, Kay, and Albert Bandura. The Second Sex. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Lefebvre, Henri, and David Nicholson-Smith. The Production of Space. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Millett, Kate. Sexual Politics. London: Granada Publishing Ltd. Nylund, David, and Debora A. Mistry, Ludmila Z. Hruda, Anne Jacobs,. Yvonne M. Caldera, Aletha C. Huston, and Carolyn Roy. Pollock, Griselda. London: Routledge. Rapoport, Amos. Culture, Architecture, and Design. Chicago: Locke Science Pub.
Gender Space Architecture. The gift of a very egalitarian and gender-balanced family, and the glass box that is called SPA—School of Planning and Architecture—made me into one of those entitled, privileged brats who saw themselves as humans and humanists.
It is with this invisible cloak of privilege that I went headlong into two bastions. It required the double lens of both these institutions for me to be cured of this blindness and start recognising some truths of my profession. I soon realised that women are quantitatively missing in architectural practice compared to men, and feminine practices seldom match up to male practices in equivalent project size and cost.
Partnership firms have very few women partners with equivalent size of practice. Over the years, in many different spheres, both within architecture and outside, I had the opportunity to examine women and men taking decisions. While men predominantly take strong individualistic decisions through an internalised process, women approached this in a more open, collaborative method. This was evidenced in design, too, which is a very complex decision-making process—a collaborative, discussion-based approach as opposed to the competitive masculinised, single designer methodologyii.
Absence of women in lead design positions creates an absence of this feminised design methodology leading to a lack of mentoring of scholars to embrace a feminised practice — leading to a culture of design studio opposed to the real nature of the profession Wolch Moreover, male-led practices very often lack opportunities for feminised design methodologies to find scope. This gap is also common within colleges.
With the women-sized hole in design methods comes a similar hole in conversation on the gendering of architecture, both within practices and college studios. This is an urgent missing conversation in our profession, enabling hostile environments for women, which is unnoticed and unacknowledged.
Studies reveal women use home spaces, office. In fact, they have donned many hats by exploiting the available technological resources. Coordinators : 1. Karuna Kumari, Assoc. Nagamani Assoc. Toggle navigation. Placement Summary. List of Students Placed. Jayaditya ECE Cognizant 3.
Ltd, Hyderabad 3. C infrastructure and project Pvt Ltd 1. Darahan CE Gk construction 3. Bhavaya ECE Cognizant 3. Ltd 2. Soma shekar reddy ECE Knoah pvt ltd 2. Vinusha ECE Knoah pvt ltd 2. LTD 2. Tech 2. Our Students Placed in Various Companies. Five Day Soft Skills Training ' Nagamani and G. A Talk on "Ubuntu Installation and Utilization". A Talk on "Web Services and Firewalls". A Talk on "Web Services and its Applications".
A Talk on "Sucess Story of Chandrayaan". A Talk on "Network Programming". A Talk on "Meditation". A Talk on "Balanced Scorecard". A Talk on "Sensor Networks". A Talk on "Grid and Cluster Computing and their applications". Reddy's Laboratories. A Talk on "Women in Research". Nageshwar Associate Professor Dept. Of Journalism Osmania University. A Talk on "Moral Values for Students".
A Talk on "Personality Development and Motivation". A Talk on "Artificial Neural Networks". A Talk on "Art of living". A Talk on "Principles of Soft Skills". Ramana Murthy Professor Dept. Of Physics Osmania University.
A Talk on "Teaching passionately". Center for Soft Skills Development The Soft Skill training centre has been established with an aim of honing the competency skills among students blending with their good academic skills.
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Find Transport to Na Kluea. Travel From Travel From. See all options. Search accommodation with Booking. Need a hotel room in Pattaya? Book now. There are 3 ways to get from Chon Buri to Na Kluea by bus, taxi or car Select an option below to see step-by-step directions and to compare ticket prices and travel times in Rome2rio's travel planner. Recommended option Bus Take the bus from Chonburi to Pattaya. Quickest way to get there Cheapest option Distance between.
What is the cheapest way to get from Chon Buri to Na Kluea? Which way is quickest from Chon Buri to Na Kluea? Is there a direct bus between Chon Buri and Na Kluea? How far is it from Chon Buri to Na Kluea? The distance between Chon Buri and Na Kluea is 46 km. The road distance is How long does it take to get from Chon Buri to Na Kluea? The bus from Chonburi to Pattaya takes 1h including transfers and departs twice daily. Where does the Chon Buri to Na Kluea bus arrive? Where can I stay near Na Kluea?
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